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Wednesday, July 29, 2015

How to boost sexual self-confidence?

We are living in an age where we are surrounded from all sides by different images and other media of beautiful people. This is something that strongly affects the psyche of the individual and therefore the sexual self-confidence too. This is happening because the sexual confidence is usually related to the physical appearance and the truth is that it doesn’t have to be like that.

If a person feels attractive on the inside, they will like that on the outside too. In other words, what is important for people is to accept themselves as they are. They don’t have to aim for some unrealistic standards.

Whoever lives in the belief that they are natural born lovers is actually wrong. Nobody is born as a perfect lover and there are a lot of things that we must learn in order to view ourselves as such. Just consider the fact that each person is different and that it has their own needs, desires and requirement and every sexual intercourse with another person asks for something new and different and represents a sort of school of learning from the very beginning.

If you are one of those people who feel miserable because of the fact that they don’t know how to seduce or/and satisfy their partners, do not worry, because this concern is something completely natural and normal and you are definitely not the only one with this feeling. The partner can be viewed as a sample for research and learning for every individual and this is something that you cannot achieve in a short period of time.

In case you have a partner with whom you feel good in the bed and a partner that truly loves you as you are, there is no room for concern. Remember that the brain is the largest and most important sex organ and if you feel comfortable, pleasant and desirable, it will affect your sexual self-confidence which is crucial for better sexual relationship. If you are good in sexual technique, you may know how to boost sexual desire and treat erectile dysfunction.

Another thing that is very important for a successful sexual relationship is to maintain good communication with your partner. Simply talk and put all the shyness aside. Feel free to tell your partner what is bothering you, what you want and ask your partner about their wishes and desires. If you experience so-called bad sex, do not despair because this is nothing strange and it can happen to anyone. If you feel that you have good sex with your partner, it is quite natural and normal that you have some bad moments from time to time. The smartest thing to do is to make fun and jokes about the situation with your partner. In this way you will cure all the inconveniences and everything will be fine. After all, you will have plenty of time to correct the mistake.

You need to have a positive image about yourself in order to be sexually satisfied. If you don’t have such image, you can help yourself by start exercising, work o self-improvement and to rediscover positive energy. Only when you gain a positive self-image your self-confidence will be high. 

Friday, July 17, 2015

Spontaneous Abortion

Abortion is the spontaneous or induced termination of pregnancy before fetal viability. Because this definition encompasses deliberate pregnancy terminations, some prefer miscarriage to refer to spontaneous pregnancy loss. The term recurrent abortion is used to describe consecutive pregnancy losses that may have a common cause. The duration of gestation or fetal weight that defines abortion is not consistent between organizations. For example, the National Center for Health Statistics, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the World Health Organization all define abortion as any pregnancy termination— spontaneous or induced—prior to 20 weeks’ gestation or with a fetus born weighing _500 g. 

These criteria are somewhat self contradictory because the average weight of a normally developed 20-week fetus is 320 g, whereas a birthweight of 500 g is the mean for 22 to 23 weeks (Moore, 1977). Th ere is even more confusion because definitions vary widely according to state laws. Technologic development has also resulted in significant evolution leading to current abortion terminology. Transvaginal sonography (TVS) and precise measurement of serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) concentrations allow identification of extremely early pregnancies as well as distinction between intrauterine and ectopic implantations. Their ubiquitous application to everyday practice has spawned a number of other terms.

For example, it is now possible to distinguish between a chemical and a clinical pregnancy. In another example, an ad hoc international consensus group has proposed definitions to clarify outcomes for pregnancy of unknown location—PUL (Barnhart, 2011). The goal is early verification of an ectopic pregnancy, which has specific management options. Intrauterine pregnancies are then managed depending on evidence for a living fetus. Those that eventuate in an early spontaneous abortion are also termed early pregnancy loss and early pregnancy failure.

As just described, spontaneous first-trimester abortion is interchangeably referred to as miscarriage, early pregnancy loss, and early pregnancy failure. Of these, more than 80 percent occur during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy. At this stage, approximately half result from chromosomal anomaliey. Of those with a fetus, there is a 1.5 male:female gender ratio (Benirschke, 2000).

After 12 weeks, both the abortion rate and the incidence of associated chromosomal anomalies decrease. During the first 3 months of pregnancy, death of the embryo or fetus nearly always precedes spontaneous expulsion. Early death of the conceptus is usually accompanied by haemorrhage into the decidua basalis, followed by necrosis of adjacent tissues. Thus, the embryo fetus detaches, stimulating uterine contractions that result in its expulsion. The intact gestational sac is usually filled with fluid, and a small macerated fetus is found in approximately half of these. In the other half, there is no fetus visible—the so-called blighted ovum. Thus, finding the cause of early miscarriage involves ascertaining the cause of fetal death. This is dissimilar from later pregnancy losses in which the fetus usually does not die before expulsion, and thus other explanations are sought.

The reported incidence of spontaneous abortion varies with the sensitivity of methods used to identify them. In a meticulous investigation of 221 healthy women studied through 707 menstrual cycles, Wilcox and colleagues (1988) identified pregnancies using precise assays for extremely low serum β-hCG concentrations. They reported that 31 percent of pregnancies were lost after implantation. Especially important when considering incidence, two thirds of these early losses were clinically silent.

Friday, July 3, 2015

Male subfertility

In the human, the process of spermatogenesis starts at puberty and continues throughout life. The total process of spermatogenesis in humans takes 74 days within the seminiferous tubules. It takes a further ten days for the sperm to travel to the epididymis to be stored for use during ejaculation. The head of the epididymis stores 70 per cent of the mature sperm and, during ejaculation, the sperm exit via the vas deferens which then passes through the inguinal canal and opens into the urethra adjacent to the prostate.

The supporting cells of the testis are the Leydig and Sertoli cells. The Leydig cells are contained in the connective tissue of the testis and are the prime source of the male hormone, testosterone. LH from the pituitary gland regulates Leydig cell function by the negative feedback loop. The Sertoli cells are highly specialized cells that maintain the integrity of the seminiferous epithelium (so that spermatogenesis can occur in an immune privileged area) as well as nourish the developing sperm.
Approximately one in 20 men are subfertile, about 85 per cent have suboptimal semen quality, while azoospermia, coital dysfunction and immune factors contribute to the rest.

Any factors, whether genetic, physiological, pathological or mechanical, that affect the spermatogenesis process from the production to time of ejaculation will influence male fertility.

Causes for male sub fertility
Sperm production problems
• Chromosomal or genetic causes
• Undescended testes (failure of
the testes to descend at birth)
• Infections
• Torsion (twisting of the testis in scrotum)
• Varicocele (varicose veins of the testes)
• Medicines and chemicals
• Radiation damage
• Unknown cause
Blockage of sperm transport
• Infections
• Prostate-related problems
• Absence of vas deferens
• Vasectomy
Sexual problems
(erection and ejaculation problems)
• Retrograde and premature ejaculation
• Failure of ejaculation
Erectile dysfunction
• Infrequent intercourse
• Spinal cord injury
• Prostate surgery
• Damage to nerves
• Some medicines
Hormonal problems
• Pituitary tumours
• Congenital lack of LH/FSH (pituitary problem from birth)
• Anabolic (androgenic) steroid abuse
Sperm antibodies
• Vasectomy
• Injury or infection in the epididymis
• Unknown cause

Semen analysis should be performed after the patientshave abstained from sexual intercourse for 3–4 days.

Two abnormal test results are required to diagnose male subfertility. For men with a very low sperm count or azoospermia, it is important to check their testosterone level (low levels suggest a production impairment) and LH/FSH. (Hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism is rare and can be treated with FSH and hCG injections.)

It is also important to screen for the cystic fibrosis (CF) mutation as a congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens (CBAVD) is a minor variant of cystic fibrosis. If the male partner is found to have the CF mutation, it is important to screen the female partner for it. If both partners are carriers, there is a one in four chance of the child being affected by CF and therefore the couple will require pre-conceptual genetic counselling prior to assisted conception. Karyotyping is also offered as there may be Y chromosome deletion defects (AZF region). Specific types of Y chromosome deletion, namely AZFa and AZFb Y chromosome deletions, carry poor prognosis for surgical sperm retrieval procedures.